This case study reviewed an infant who required vitamin B12 to address numerous health problems (1). A vitamin B12 deficiency in infants is rare, but may sometimes be seen in breastfed babies of strict vegetarian mothers. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is only found in meat and other animal products. Most babies have a sufficient supply as long as the mother was not deficient herself. Symptoms and signs of vitamin B12 deficiency appear between the ages of 2 to 12 months and include vomiting, lethargy, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. This article presents a case of vitamin B12 deficiency in a 9-month-old girl presented with psychomotor regression, hypotonia and lethargy.
Individualized metacognitive training (MCT+) is a novel psychotherapy that has been designed to specifically target delusional beliefs in people with psychosis (1). It works by developing an awareness of the implausible content of delusional beliefs, while also targeting the cognitive biases that contribute to their formation and maintenance. It was expected that MCT+ would lead to significantly greater reductions in delusional severity compared to a cognitive remediation (CR) active control condition. A total of 54 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and active delusions were randomized into four 2-hourly sessions.
In this article, the authors discuss the components of plants which have medicinal activity against cataracts (1). Cataract is an eye disease with clouding of the eye lens leading to disrupted vision, which often develops slowly and causes blurriness of the eyesight. Although the restoration of the vision in people with cataract is conducted through surgery, the costs and risks remain an issue. Botanical drugs have been evaluated for their potential efficacies in reducing cataract formation decades ago and major active phytoconstituents were isolated from the plant extracts. A literature search was synthesized from the databases. Selection of all manuscripts were based on inclusion and exclusion criteria together with analysis of publication year, plant species, isolated phytoconstituents, and evaluated cataract activities.
In this article, the authors review the evidence in using vitamin D to help with cardiovascular disease, in patients with chronic kidney disease (1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen even in the early stages of CKD. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in individuals with CKD. Low vitamin D levels upregulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), cause endothelial dysfunction, and increase inflammation. Epidemiological studies show an association between vitamin D deficiency and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but a causal relationship has not been established.
This review article discusses the use of food rather than supplements (1). In the past, vitamins and minerals were used to cure deficiency diseases. Supplements nowadays are used with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases of which the origins are complex. Dietary supplement use has increased over recent decades, contributing to the nutrient intake in the population, but not necessarily the proportion of the population that is sub-optimally nourished; therefore, not reducing the proportion below the estimated average requirement and potentially increasing the number at risk of an intake above the safety limits. The supplement nutrient intake may be objectively monitored using circulation biomarkers.
This review article discusses the Mediterranean diet for veterans as a possible basis for good health (1). Veterans with disability represent a big burden worldwide and often require long-term rehabilitation. Unhealthy dietary and lifestyle habits, including smoke and alcohol abuse, are common in veterans. The Mediterranean diet has been suggested as a natural, non-pharmacological nutraceutical for healthy ageing. Although there is a broad consensus on the positive effect of plant foods consumption, the presence of glucosinolates, flavonoids and furanocoumarins in some plant foods and beverages must be taken into consideration owing to their potential interfering with drugs metabolism and bioavailability. A personalized nutrition is recommended in veterans who are in treatment for comorbidities.
This study investigated the recent studies that show different mechanisms through which vitamin C can be used as a preventative or a therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori related infections (1). The treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced infections using antibiotic therapies is clinically well accepted; however, using a noninvasive approach with the implementation of therapeutic agents such as vitamin C is not well investigated. Vitamin C has certain characteristics, which allow for it to be considered as a potential treatment option for patients with H. pylori infections. Vitamin C's hostility and mechanism of action towards H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease can be classified into two categories: as a preventative agent and alternatively as a therapeutic agent.
The objective of this study was to describe the observed changes in nutrient intakes following a 3-month anti-inflammatory diet, and to explore potential relationships between the change in nutrients and the change in various inflammatory mediators (1). The treatment group demonstrated a significant reduction in fat intake, a significant increase in protein intake and no change in carbohydrates or energy intake. The treatment group showed a significant increase in some nutrients with established anti-inflammatory properties including vitamins A, C, and E, and omega-3 fatty acids. Significant reductions in proinflammatory nutrients were observed including trans fatty acids, caffeine, and sodium. The treatment group also showed significant reductions in the proinflammatory mediators.
Tryptophan is an essential plant-derived amino acid that is needed for the in vivo biosynthesis of proteins. After consumption, it is metabolically transformed to bioactive metabolites, including serotonin, melatonin, kynurenine, and the vitamin niacin (nicotinamide). This review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the reported multiple analytical methods for free and protein-bound tryptophan in pure proteins, protein-containing foods, and in human fluids and tissues, the nutritional significance of l-tryptophan and its isomer d-tryptophan in fortified infant foods and corn tortillas as well the possible function of tryptophan in the diagnosis and mitigation of multiple human diseases (1).
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of probiotic supplementation in children for functional constipation (1). They included 4 trials reporting data on 382 children with functional constipation. Overall, there were no significant differences in treatment success, spontaneous bowel movements per week, fecal soiling episodes per week, straining at defecation, use of lactulose, use of laxatives, fecal incontinence, pain during defecation, flatulence, and adverse events between probiotics and placebo. Further, the use of probiotics was associated with lower frequency of glycerin enema use and abdominal pain. The authors conclude that the use of probiotics was associated with significant improvement in glycerin enema use and abdominal pain but did not affect the treatment success and other function indices.
This study investigated whether the potential anxiety relief provided by auricular acupressure could improve the efficacy of habit reversal treatment, as evidenced by improved stomatological and other outcomes (1). In a pragmatic, randomized, crossover, pilot clinical trial, 83 nail biters (8-12 years old) received habit reversal treatment in combination with either auricular acupressure intended to reduce anxiety (Method A) or placebo auricular acupressure (Method B). The alternative protocol was employed after a two-month washout period. The results showed that forty-one children successfully completed both arms of the treatments and attended all appointments. There were significant differences in the efficacy of habit reversal treatment, the anxiety score, the nail status, and the SGI in favor of Method A.
In this study, the authors examined the efficacy of an Internet-based stress management program (1). The program is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and was inspired by the "Funambule" program in Quebec. Four questionnaires (Perceived Stress Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Scale of Satisfaction in Studies, and General Health Questionnaire) uploaded online were answered thrice: during "preintervention", "postintervention", and "follow-up" stages, the latter of which occurred three months after the intervention. The sample comprised 128 university students, with the majority being women (81.25%). The self-esteem scores of the control group were significantly higher than those of the experimental group at the preintervention stage, but this difference disappeared at the postintervention and follow-up stages.
Vitamin D levels have been linked to certain pain states, including migraine. In this study, the authors investigated whether vitamin D supplementation would be beneficial for adult patients with migraine (1). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in migraine patients (36 women and 12 men, 18-65 years of age). A 4-week baseline period was conducted before randomization to 24 weeks of treatment. Participants were assigned to receive Vitamin D (n = 24, 18 women and 6 men, 100 μg/day Vitamin D or placebo (n = 24, 18 women and 6 men). Migraine attacks and related symptoms were assessed by self-reported diaries. The response rate (i.e., experiencing a 50% or greater reduction in migraine frequency from baseline to week 24), change in migraine severity, and number of migraine days were recorded.
Evidence for blood pressure-lowering effects of vitamin C (VC) supplementation in clinical trials is inconsistent and limited studies have examined the effect of VC supplementation on hypertension (HTN) control. In this study, eligible patients were cluster assigned to receive 300 mg VC per day or nothing for 6 months (1). During the 6-month follow-up period, a questionnaire survey was obtained and standardized blood pressure measurements were performed on all subjects. Oral administration of VC significantly decreased the diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure with a significant increase in HTN control.
This review discusses immune system dysfunction as a possible target of autism therapy (1). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention.