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  • 19 Jun 18
    In this article, the authors review information related to DNA methylation, and its association with cancer and ageing (1). The review outlines the key factors, including diet, which modulate DNA methylation. Ageing and diseases, including cancer, are often accompanied by aberrant DNA methylation, a key epigenetic process, which is crucial to the regulation of gene expression. Significantly, it has been observed that with age and certain disease states, DNA methylation status can become disrupted. For instance, a broad array of cancers are associated with promoter-specific hypermethylation and concomitant gene silencing. This review highlights that hypermethylation, and gene silencing, of the EN1 gene promoter, a crucial homeobox gene, has been detected in various forms of cancer.
  • 19 Jun 18
    In this article, the authors observed the clinical efficacy and safety of topical ozone therapy for patients with herpes zoster by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) (1).
 A total of 60 patients with herpes zoster were divided into a control group and an ozone treatment group. In the control group, patients took oral valacyclovir tablets or granules (0.3 g per day, three times a day) and they were subjected to local weak laser irradiation treatment plus topical 2% mupirocin ointment twice a day. In the ozone group, the treatment is same as the control group except mupirocin ointment was replaced with topical ozone treatment (hydrotherapy every day plus ozonated oil twice a day). The clinical symptoms, discoid cell and adverse reactions were observed and taken records at day 0, 3, 7 and 14.
  • 19 Jun 18
    Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health concerns with a major contribution to the global burden of disease. Pharmacology and psychotherapy stand for the conventional treatment for anxiety disorders but these present limited efficacy, especially in the case of chronic anxiety, with high relapse rates and often causing adverse side effects. Clinical research studies render acupuncture as a valid treatment therapy for anxiety disorders without significant adverse effects (1). This article reviewed the literature on the effectiveness of acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of patients with anxiety. The systematic review of the clinical research was focused on published clinical trials (controlled, randomized and non-randomized) regarding the treatment of anxiety with acupuncture.
  • 19 Jun 18
    Asthma is a prolonged respiratory disease related with hyper-responsiveness and increased inflammation of airways; affects millions peoples worldwide. Vitamin D possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities (1). Its deficiency (the level less than 20 ng/mL in the serum) is found to be related to occurrence of pulmonary diseases including bacterial and viral infections and asthma. Some studies indicate that low levels of vitamin D in the serum are related to reduced lung function and increased airway inflammation as well as overall poor results in asthmatic patients. Thus, it provides positive relation between vitamin D and asthma. This article discusses how the results of clinical trials are inconsistent and do not provide supportive information about positive role of vitamin D in asthma.
  • 19 Jun 18
    Soy isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are bioflavonoids found in soy products that are able to interact with various hormones such as estrogen. In this article, a systematic review of published studies was carried out to investigate the characterization of isoflavones and their metabolites, sample pretreatment and quantitative analysis of isoflavones, and the influence of soy isoflavones on drug and xenobiotic metabolism. The results showed that aglycones with weak estrogen-like activities are the biologically active forms of the soy isoflavones in mammals. The most recent advances including extraction, purification and detection of isoflavones in soybean and soy products are discussed.
  • 03 May 18
    It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD) (1). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients. Twenty-six male subjects with CAD were randomly divided into a training group, submitted to the WAET, and a control group. The WAET consisted of 3 weekly sessions on alternate days, totalling 48 sessions.
  • 03 May 18
    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterised by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs. This article attempted to synthesise results of non-pharmacological/non-surgical treatment compared to no-treatment controls or alternative treatment for RLS on any relevant outcome (1). The search yielded 442 articles. Eleven trials met inclusion criteria. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, exercise, compression devices, counterstrain manipulation, infrared therapy, and standard acupuncture were significantly more effective for RLS severity than control conditions. Vibration pads, cryotherapy, and transcranial direct current stimulation were ineffective in reducing RLS severity. Vibration pads, cryotherapy, yoga, compression devices, and acupuncture significantly improved some sleep-related outcomes.
  • 03 May 18
    There have been several studies evaluating the association between vitamin and mineral status and menstrual disturbance (1). In this study, the authors aimed to assess the relationship between the menstrual bleeding pattern and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels in adolescent girls. There was no significant association between the symptoms of PMS, as assessed by the questionnaire and serum vitamin D status, or serum calcium concentrations, apart from the irritability. There appears to be an association between serum calcium, menstrual blood loss and irritability in adolescent girls. The authors conclude that the level of calcium was associated with the level of menstrual blood loss and irritability. However, no significant association was observed between the menstrual bleeding pattern or the PMS symptoms with a vitamin D status. References (1) Bahrami A, et al. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018; doi: 10.1080/01443615.2018.1434764.
  • 03 May 18
    This article aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in first episode psychosis (FEP) (1). A systematic review was conducted. The results included 11 studies. . Six studies examined omega-3 fatty acids, with inconsistent effects on psychiatric symptoms. However, mechanistic studies found significant improvements in hippocampal neuronal health and brain glutathione. Antioxidants "n-acetyl cysteine" and vitamin C also improved oxidative status in FEP, which was associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms. No benefits were found for vitamin E . Finally, one study trialling the amino acid taurine, showed significant improvements in positive symptoms and psychosociall functioning.
  • 03 May 18

    This article discusses Vitamin D and its effects on athletic performance (1). Vitamin D is important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including muscle cell proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient. Higher serum levels of vitamin D are associated with reduced injury rates and improved sports performance.

  • 20 Apr 18

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of complementary health approaches (CHAs) specifically for acute complaints in patients assessed in a pediatric emergency department (ED) and factors associated with use (1). A cross-sectional survey was offered to patients between the age of 28 days and 18 years assessed at a tertiary pediatric ED. The results showed that of 475 potential participants, 412 (86.7%) participated, of which 369 (89.5%) completed the survey. Overall, 28.7% reported using any CHA for their child to treat the presenting complaint in the prior 72 hours to the ED visit. Gastrointestinal complaints had the highest use of CHA (46.3% of presentations endorsed use). The most common complementary health products used were vitamins and minerals; the most common complementary health practice used was massage.

  • 16 Apr 18

    The purpose of this review is to outline the currently developed non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) molecular antagonists, their potential clinical roles and future directions (1). The incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is expected to more than double between 2010 and 2030. Accordingly, the use of NOAC agents for thromboembolic stroke prevention is anticipated to increase. The development of effective and safe antidotes is needed to address the unmet need for rapid anticoagulation reversal. The immediate role for these novel antidotes is for reversal of NOAC activity in life threatening bleeding and urgent surgical intervention. In addition, reversal agents may play an important role in simplifying bridging protocols in the peri-procedural period for catheter ablation of AF and elective surgery.

  • 16 Apr 18

    Circulatory failure, especially with low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), as observed in septic shock, thyrotoxicosis, and anemia, is a particular pattern that should suggest thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. The clinical picture of wet beriberi secondary to thiamine deficiency only demonstrates non-specific clinical manifestations. This article presents a rare case of wet beriberi associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) in a prison patient with years of heavy alcohol consumption (1). The patient started treatment with thiamine (100 mg) by intramuscular injection, together with basic supportive care. The outcomes were that the hemodynamic indices improved within 12 hours after thiamine administration. Echocardiographic examinations revealed right ventricular function improvement within a few days, which were normal within a month.

  • 15 Apr 18

    Vitamin D has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was a meta-analysis to examine the effects on inflammatory markers (1). Multiple databases were searched and randomized controlled trials were identified for analysis. The results showed that 28 studies were included. Vitamin D lowered C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, and ESR – all inflammatory markers. This meta-analysis provides level 1 evidence that vitamin D supplementation may reduce chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    References

  • 04 Apr 18

    Recommended fish intake differs substantially from observed fish intake. In Denmark, 15% of the population consumes the state-recommended fish intake. How much fish individuals eat varies greatly, and this variation cannot be captured by considering the fish intake of the average population. The objective of this study was to propose specific fish intake levels for individuals that meet the recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D without violating the permitted intake recommendations for methyl mercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (1). Results showed that individual, personal dietary recommendations were successfully modeled. Modeled fish intake levels were compared to observed fish intakes.